Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurobiological disorders in childhood and adolescence which also may continue in adulthood in 2/3 of cases . It occurs with a frequency 5-7% in school age children (according to some studies, the incidence is much higher, up to 10%). The reported ratio between boys and girls is 3:1 (or 5:1); however, this is considered plasmatic, either because most affected girls have the silent type of the disorder (they are not hyperkinetic) thus they are underdiagnosed or they cope with the disorder better and get diagnosed later in their life. Though ADHD is a common condition, it is still not entirely understood by the community, neither has been accepted as an entity by all the scientific and social groups. Although, ADHD is one of the most thoroughly studied and established paediatric mental disorders worldwide (within the last five years, several groups of experts in the field, as well as societies make an intense effort to educate and sensitize those who are involved in diagnosing, referring, and managing children with ADHD), it has caused much conflict among scientists, therefore it remains still underdiagnosed in many countries, including Greece.
Children with ADHD are usually seen by specialists at the age of 3 to 7 years. In most of the cases, the recognition of the problem coincides with the initiation of the primary school, because of the increased demands posed on child’s concentration, organization and compliance.
Since the core symptoms of ADHD, e.g. attention deficit, impulsivity, and hyperactivity are so common among most children in early life, the diagnosis is often overlooked. Besides, in some cases, the impact of ADHD itself on child’s behaviour, social adjustment or school achievements is attributed to comorbids that coexist simultaneously with the disorder. Thus, ADHD very often is undiagnosed or false diagnosed, and even if diagnosed early in a child’s life, may be a multimodal programme has never being applied to improve child’ s quality of life.